E Health Choices

Saturday, 25 August 2018

Yellow fever is a serious infection spread by mosquitoes

it is determined in components of Africa, South the united states, imperative the united states and the Caribbean.

there is a vaccine that can prevent you from getting it in case you're traveling to an area in which the contamination is found.

Yellow fever vaccination
The yellow fever vaccine is suggested in case you're visiting to:

a place where yellow fever is discovered
a country that calls for you to have a certificates proving you've got been vaccinated towards yellow fever
You want to have the vaccine as a minimum 10 days before travelling to offer it enough time to work. Your certificates will handiest be valid after this time.

The vaccine and certificate are most effective to be had from registered yellow fever vaccination centres. The jab is not commonly given for free at the NHS and generally charges round £60-80.

The vaccine offers lifelong safety, so you may not commonly need a booster dose or a new certificates if you've been vaccinated before.

examine more about the yellow fever vaccine.

where yellow fever is determined
Yellow fever is determined in:

maximum of sub-Saharan Africa (the location below the Sahara barren region)
maximum of South america
elements of critical the us
parts of the Caribbean
It isn't always discovered within the uk, Europe, Asia, Australia, New Zealand or the Pacific Islands.

some countries near to areas where yellow fever is determined may additionally require a proof of vaccination certificate whilst journeying, even supposing there is no danger of selecting up the contamination in these countries.

To discover if yellow fever is a danger wherein you are travelling to or if the u . s . a . you're travelling requires a vaccination certificate, see:

tour health pro: maps of where yellow fever is observed
tour health seasoned: country facts
How yellow fever is spread
Yellow fever is a deadly disease unfold through mosquito bites. You can't get it from near touch with a person who has it.

The mosquitoes that unfold the infection are discovered in towns and rural areas. They particularly bite for the duration of the day.

if you're traveling to an area wherein yellow fever is determined, try and avoid being bitten – even in case you've been vaccinated – as mosquitoes can also unfold different critical illnesses, consisting of malaria and dengue.

you could try this by way of using mosquito nets, wearing clothes that cover your legs and arms, and the use of insect repellent containing 50% DEET.

examine extra about the way to prevent insect bites.

symptoms of yellow fever
the first symptoms of yellow fever commonly expand three to 6 days after being infected.

They encompass:

a excessive temperature (fever) of 38C (100.4F) or above
a headache
feeling unwell or vomiting
muscle pain and backache
your eyes being sensitive to light
lack of urge for food and feeling commonly ill
the majority make a full restoration after 3 or 4 days.

some humans cross on to get extra critical signs and symptoms, inclusive of:

yellowing of the pores and skin and eyes (jaundice)
bleeding from the mouth, nose or eyes
vomiting blood or blood in poo
up to half of individuals who get these signs and symptoms die.

when to get clinical help
See a medical doctor right away in case you get signs and symptoms of yellow fever while travelling in an area wherein the contamination is discovered.

in case you get symptoms after these days coming back from the sort of areas, contact your GP or NHS 111 for recommendation as quickly as feasible.

inform them precisely wherein you've been touring, if you think you've got been bitten through a mosquito, and what signs and symptoms you have got.

you could need to have a blood take a look at to check for the contamination.

remedies for yellow fever
there is no cure for yellow fever, but the symptoms can be dealt with while your frame fights off the contamination.

most of the people make a full healing after three or four days.

Painkillers which include paracetamol or ibuprofen can help decrease your temperature and relieve aches or pains inside the period in-between. also drink masses of fluids to avoid dehydration.

if you have extra severe signs and symptoms, you can want to go into hospital for near tracking and treatment of your signs until you're feeling higher.

Zika virus disorder is especially spread with the aid of mosquitoes. For the majority it's far a completely mild infection and isn't always dangerous.

but, it is able to be extra severe for pregnant girls, as there's evidence it reasons beginning defects – specifically, abnormally small heads (microcephaly).

Zika does not clearly occur inside the uk. Zika outbreaks have been pronounced inside the Pacific Islands, South and central the united states, the Caribbean, Africa, and components of south and southeast Asia.

in case you plan to travel to an affected vicinity, are trying to find tour health advice before your journey. tour recommendation is customized to you and based totally on the extent of chance (excessive, mild or low) for the united states you're traveling to.

it's miles advocated that pregnant girls should:

postpone non-critical tour to areas at excessive threat of Zika virus transmission
don't forget suspending non-vital tour to regions at moderate danger of Zika virus transmission till after being pregnant
high-danger areas are in which there are cutting-edge outbreaks of Zika virus, or where there was an boom inside the range of instances received regionally, via mosquito bites.

in case you tour to an affected place, you could reduce your hazard of catching the virus through the use of insect repellent and carrying unfastened garb that covers your arms and legs.

signs of Zika virus infection
the majority don't have any signs. If signs do occur, they may be commonly slight and remaining around  to seven days.

typically mentioned signs and symptoms encompass:

itching everywhere in the body
joint ache (with possible swelling, mainly within the smaller joints of the fingers and ft)
muscle ache
conjunctivitis (red eyes)
decrease back ache
pain in the back of the eyes
the way you catch Zika virus infection
maximum cases of Zika virus disease are unfold via infected mosquitoes biting people. unlike the mosquitoes that spread malaria, affected mosquitoes (the Aedes mosquito) are most active at some point of the day, mainly throughout mid-morning, then overdue-afternoon to dusk.

There have been a small wide variety of news of Zika virus being handed on thru sexual intercourse, although the chance is concept to be low.

lowering your chance of Zika virus infection
before touring, are searching for tour fitness recommendation from your GP/practice nurse or a travel health facility preferably 4 to six weeks before you move.

you may use this A to Z manual to test if the u . s . a . you are journeying has a excessive, moderate or low hazard for Zika virus transmission.

distinct travel health advice to your destination is also to be had from the TravelHealthPro website or the Scottish journey fitness provider fitfortravel.

To lessen your danger of contamination, you ought to keep away from being bitten through an Aedes mosquito. The only bite prevention methods, which have to be used at some point of daytime and night time-time hours, include:

the usage of insect repellent that includes DEET (N, N-diethyl-meta-toluamide) on exposed skin, after sunscreen has been carried out. DEET may be used by pregnant or breastfeeding ladies in concentrations as much as 50%, and in babies and kids older than  months. It should now not be used on infants more youthful than two months.
wearing loose garb that covers your legs and arms.
drowsing under a mosquito net in regions where malaria is also a hazard.
recommendation for pregnant women
Scientists have concluded that there may be enough evidence to show that Zika virus infection is a motive of delivery defects, consisting of microcephaly (this indicates the toddler may have an abnormally small head and may be related to peculiar mind development). that is also called congenital Zika syndrome.

it's far therefore advocated that pregnant ladies have to:

put off non-crucial tour to areas at excessive danger of Zika virus transmission
do not forget suspending non-important tour to areas at moderate chance of Zika virus transmission till after being pregnant
discuss your travel plans together with your GP, exercise nurse or a tour hospital. If tour is unavoidable, then you definately need to take greater care to avoid being bitten by using mosquitoes.

in case you and your associate are presently in a place with high or slight hazard of Zika virus transmission, make sure you operate condoms throughout vaginal, anal and oral intercourse while touring and for the duration of your being pregnant.

in case you are pregnant and feature these days returned from an area with excessive or mild hazard of Zika virus transmission, see your GP or midwife and point out where you've got been, even when you have now not been unwell. Your midwife or medical institution medical doctor will speak the chance with you and may set up an ultrasound test of your baby to screen boom.

If there are any issues, you may be referred to a expert foetal medication carrier for further monitoring.

Zika virus is most likely to be detected through currently to be had assessments while signs are present. in case you are currently experiencing Zika signs, touch your GP, who will decide whether or not investigations are vital. Investigations might consist of a blood check and/or an ultrasound take a look at in case you are pregnant.

Screening assessments for Zika for the ones without symptoms are not to be had.

recommendation for girls trying to get pregnant
If you are attempting to get pregnant, speak your journey plans with your GP, practice nurse or travel clinic. You need to take extra care to avoid being bitten via mosquitoes.

it's miles encouraged which you keep away from turning into pregnant whilst travelling to a place with excessive or slight hazard of Zika virus transmission, and for eight weeks after you return home. it is also encouraged which you take folic acid dietary supplements for 28 days earlier than trying to get pregnant.

if you have experienced Zika signs and symptoms within  weeks of returning home, it's far endorsed that you wait 8 weeks after complete restoration before you try to get pregnant.

in case your male partner has travelled to an area with high or mild risk of Zika virus transmission, you need to use powerful birth control to prevent pregnancy and  condoms for the duration of vaginal, anal and oral sex to lessen the danger of sexual transmission.

these measures need to be taken at some stage in travel and for 6 months:

after begin of signs and symptoms (if he does enjoy Zika signs or a Zika virus infection has been showed through a medical doctor)
following his return domestic (if he has no Zika signs and symptoms)
targeted recommendation on stopping infection with the aid of sexual transmission is to be had from Public health England.

How Zika virus infection is dealt with
there is no particular remedy for Zika virus symptoms.

ingesting masses of water and taking paracetamol may assist relieve signs.

if you experience ill after returning from a country that has malaria as well as being high or moderate risk for Zika virus transmission, you must are seeking pressing (same day) advice to help rule out a malaria prognosis.

in case you stay unwell and malaria has been proven no longer to be the motive, are looking for medical advice.

What if i am concerned that my toddler has been tormented by Zika?
talk in your midwife or health practitioner for recommendation. in case you are still concerned after receiving assurances from your healthcare professional and sense traumatic or pressured more than common, you can ask your GP or midwife for referral to further counselling.

Zika virus and blood donation
As a precaution, the NHS Blood and Transplant carrier has endorsed that humans who have travelled to regions with excessive or moderate threat of Zika virus transmission wait 28 days before donating blood.

if you need to recognise whether any latest foreign journey temporarily bars you from giving blood, you can name their national contact Centre

Some types of worms can infect people

a few can be caught inside the united kingdom and others are only stuck abroad. most bug infections are not extreme and can be easily treated with medicine.

A pharmacist can help if you have:
small, white worms on your poo that appear like portions of thread
extreme itching around your anus, mainly at night time
This is probably threadworms.

they're common within the united kingdom and can be treated with medication from a pharmacy.

discover a pharmacy

See a GP in case you:
find a big malicious program or massive piece of worm on your poo
have a crimson, itchy worm-fashioned rash on your pores and skin
have illness, diarrhoea or a belly ache for longer than 2 weeks
are losing weight for no cause
these might be signs of something like roundworm, hookworm or tapeworm.

these infections are generally caught whilst touring. they can take a long term to purpose signs and symptoms, so inform your GP if you've been abroad in the final 2 years.

See what distinctive worms look like
It would not be counted which sort of computer virus you've got – all malicious program infections are dealt with in a similar manner.

remedy to do away with worms
You might be requested to provide a pattern of poo so it may be tested for malicious program eggs.

if you have worms, your GP will prescribe medicinal drug to kill them. you're taking this for 1 to three days. The humans you live with may additionally need to be dealt with.

Any worms on your intestine will ultimately skip out for your poo. you may now not be aware this.

To keep away from becoming infected once more or infecting others, it is very crucial in the course of the weeks after beginning treatment to scrub your fingers:

after going to the toilet
earlier than eating or making ready food
regularly in the course of the dayAn X-ray is a brief and painless process commonly used to supply pix of the inside of the frame.

it is a totally effective manner of looking at the bones and may be used to assist discover quite a number conditions.

X-rays are commonly finished in clinic X-ray departments by trained professionals called radiographers, despite the fact that they can also be accomplished by different healthcare specialists, consisting of dentists.

How X-rays paintings
X-rays are a form of radiation which can skip thru the body. They can't be visible by the bare eye and you cannot experience them.

As they pass thru the frame, the power from X-rays is absorbed at different quotes with the aid of exceptional elements of the frame. A detector on the alternative aspect of the body selections up the X-rays when they've exceeded via and turns them into an image.

Dense components of your frame that X-rays locate it extra hard to bypass thru, such as bone, show up as clean white areas at the image. Softer elements that X-rays can bypass through extra without difficulty, which include your heart and lungs, display up as darker regions.

whilst X-rays are used
X-rays can be used to observe maximum regions of the body. they are particularly used to look at the bones and joints, even though they're sometimes used to stumble on issues affecting smooth tissue, inclusive of internal organs.

issues that may be detected all through an X-ray consist of:

bone fractures and breaks
teeth problems, which include free teeth and dental abscesses
scoliosis (bizarre curvature of the spine)
non-cancerous and cancerous bone tumours
lung problems, together with pneumonia and lung most cancers
dysphagia (swallowing issues)
coronary heart issues, which includes heart failure
breast cancer
X-rays also can be used to manual docs or surgeons all through positive processes. for example, at some stage in a coronary angioplasty – a technique to widen narrowed arteries near the coronary heart – X-rays may be used to help manual a catheter (a protracted, skinny, flexible tube) along one among your arteries.

making ready for an X-ray
You don't commonly need to do anything unique to prepare for an X-ray. you may consume and drink as ordinary beforehand and may keep taking your traditional medications.

however, you may want to stop taking positive medicines and keep away from eating and ingesting for a few hours in case you're having an X-ray that makes use of a contrast agent (see evaluation X-rays beneath).

For all X-rays, you need to permit the clinic recognize if you're pregnant. X-rays are not commonly advocated for pregnant girls unless it is an emergency (for extra information, see Can i have an X-ray if i am pregnant?).

it is an awesome concept to wear loose comfortable garments, as you will be capable of put on those during the X-ray. try and avoid wearing jewelry and garments containing metallic (including zips), as these will want to be eliminated.

Having an X-ray
at some stage in an X-ray, you may commonly be requested to lie on a desk or stand in opposition to a flat surface so that the a part of your body being tested may be located in the proper place.

The X-ray system, which seems like a tube containing a massive light bulb, may be carefully aimed at the a part of the frame being tested via the radiographer. they will function the system from in the back of a display screen or from the subsequent room.

The X-ray will last for a fraction of a 2nd. You may not feel whatever even as it is executed.

while the X-ray is being taken, you will want to preserve still so the image produced isn't always blurred. more than one X-ray can be taken from one of a kind angles to provide as much records as feasible

The method will commonly most effective take a few minutes.

assessment X-rays
In some cases, a substance referred to as a contrast agent may be given before an X-ray is carried out. this will assist show smooth tissues extra clearly on the X-ray.

types of X-rays regarding a contrast agent encompass:

barium swallow – a substance referred to as barium is swallowed to help spotlight the higher digestive system
barium enema – barium is passed into your bowel via your bottom
angiography – iodine is injected into a blood vessel to highlight the heart and blood vessels
intravenous urogram (IVU) – iodine is injected into a blood vessel to highlight the kidneys and bladder
those styles of X-rays may additionally need special coaching in advance and could usually take longer to perform. Your appointment letter will mention something you want to do to prepare.

What happens after an X-ray
You may not revel in any after effects from a preferred X-ray and could be able to pass home rapidly afterwards. you can go back in your regular activities at once.

you could have some brief facet outcomes from the contrast agent if one become used at some point of your X-ray.

as an instance, barium can flip your poo a whitish shade for a few days and an injection given to relax your belly before the X-ray may also purpose your eyesight to be blurry for a few hours. a few humans increase a rash or sense sick after having an iodine injection.

The X-ray pictures will frequently want to be examined via a medical doctor known as a radiologist earlier than you're advised the outcomes. they may speak their findings with you at the same day, or they'll send a report for your GP or the doctor who requested the X-ray, who can discuss the results with you some days later.

Are X-rays safe?
people are frequently concerned about being exposed to radiation at some stage in an X-ray. however, the part of your body being tested will most effective be exposed to a low degree of radiation for a fraction of a 2nd.

commonly, the amount of radiation you are exposed to during an X-ray is the equal to between a few days and some years of publicity to herbal radiation from the surroundings.

Being uncovered to X-rays does deliver a risk of inflicting most cancers many years or decades later, however this danger is idea to be very small.

as an example, an X-ray of your chest, limbs or teeth is equivalent to a few days' worth of historical past radiation, and has much less than a 1 in 1,000,000 danger of causing cancer. For more data, see GOV.united kingdom: affected person dose statistics.

The benefits and risks of getting an X-ray may be weighed up earlier than it is advocated. talk for your physician or radiographer approximately the capacity dangers beforehand, when you have any issues.

pass returned for your GP if your signs do not get better in 2 weeks otherwise you keep passing stay worms on your poo.

the way you seize worms
Worms are particularly spread in small bits of poo from human beings with a computer virus contamination. a few are caught from meals.

you could get infected via:

touching gadgets or surfaces with computer virus eggs on them – if a person with worms doesn't wash their hands
touching soil or swallowing water or food with trojan horse eggs in it – specially a risk in components of the sector with out contemporary bathrooms or sewage structures
walking barefoot on soil containing worms – simplest a hazard in parts of the world with out present day bathrooms or sewage structures
consuming uncooked or undercooked beef, red meat or freshwater fish (like salmon or trout) containing baby worms – extra commonplace in parts of the sector with terrible food hygiene requirements

Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome is a heart condition

that causes the heart to overcome abnormally speedy for durations of time.

it's a surprisingly common condition, affecting among one and three in each 1,000 human beings.

The cause is a further electric connection within the coronary heart. This trouble with the heart is present at delivery (congenital), although symptoms might not develop till later in life. Many cases are diagnosed in in any other case healthful adults elderly among 20 and forty.

every now and then the extra electrical connection may not reason any signs and symptoms and might most effective be picked up when an electrocardiogram (ECG) check is achieved for some other reason. In these cases, in addition checks can be carried out to decide if treatment is required.

Is it severe?
it could be scary to be told that you have a problem along with your coronary heart, but WPW syndrome typically isn't critical.

Many humans will don't have any signs and symptoms or simplest enjoy occasional, mild episodes in their heart racing. With treatment, the circumstance can generally be absolutely cured.

WPW syndrome can now and again be life-threatening, mainly if it takes place alongside a form of abnormal heartbeat known as atrial fibrillation. but this is rare and remedy can put off this danger.

symptoms of WPW syndrome
when you have WPW syndrome, you may experience episodes in which your coronary heart unexpectedly starts offevolved racing, earlier than stopping or slowing down all at once. This speedy coronary heart rate is referred to as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT).

in the course of an episode, you may revel in signs consisting of:

a pounding or fluttering heartbeat (coronary heart palpitations)
feeling mild-headed or dizzy
shortness of breath
chest pain
feeling demanding
finding bodily hobby onerous
passing out (fainting)
those episodes can remaining for seconds, minutes or hours. hardly ever, they can final for days.

How often they arise varies from individual to person. some human beings may also have episodes on a day by day foundation, while others may simplest enjoy them a few instances a yr.

They commonly arise randomly, without any identifiable reason, but they are able to now and again be induced by way of strenuous workout or consuming a variety of alcohol or caffeine.

whilst to are looking for scientific recommendation
If you have not been diagnosed with WPW syndrome, you must touch your GP or name NHS 111 as soon as viable in case your heart starts offevolved beating unusually speedy and you have any of the above signs and symptoms.

Dial 999 for an ambulance if your signs and symptoms are especially extreme or lengthy-lasting.

if you've already been identified with WPW syndrome and also you enjoy an episode, first strive the strategies you've been taught or take any medicinal drug you've been given (see below).

Dial 999 or visit your nearest accident and emergency (A&E) branch if these measures don't prevent the episode inside a few minutes, or if someone  has WPW syndrome and collapses or faints.

What causes WPW syndrome?
when the heart beats, its muscular walls agreement (tighten and squeeze) to force blood out and across the body. They then relax, allowing the coronary heart to fill with blood once more. this is managed by using electric alerts.

In WPW syndrome, there's an additional electrical connection in the coronary heart, which allows electric indicators to skip the standard route and form a quick circuit. this indicates the signals tour spherical and spherical in a loop, causing episodes where the heart beats very fast.

The extra electric connection is as a result of a strand of heart muscle that grows while the unborn infant is developing inside the womb.

it is not clean exactly why this happens. It simply seems to arise randomly in some babies, despite the fact that rare instances had been determined to run in families.

Diagnosing WPW syndrome
if your medical doctor thinks you might have WPW syndrome after assessing your signs, they'll likely endorse having an electrocardiogram (ECG) and could refer you to a heart specialist (heart specialist).

An ECG is a check that data your heart's rhythm and electric activity. Small discs known as electrodes are stuck onto your fingers, legs and chest and connected by way of wires to an ECG gadget. The system facts the tiny electrical indicators produced via your heart whenever it beats.

if you have WPW syndrome, the ECG will record an uncommon pattern that isn't always commonly found in folks that don't have the condition.

To verify the diagnosis, you may be asked to wear a small transportable ECG recorder so your heart rhythm can be recorded for the duration of an episode. The recorder will trace your coronary heart rate constantly over a few days, or when you switch it on at the begin of an episode.

remedies for WPW syndrome
in lots of instances, episodes of odd heart pastime related to WPW syndrome are innocent, do not final long, and relax on their own without remedy.

you could consequently no longer need any treatment if your signs and symptoms are slight or occur very now and again, although you need to still have everyday check-united statesso your coronary heart may be monitored.

if your heart specialist recommends treatment, there are a number of options to be had. you can have treatment to either stop episodes after they occur, or save you them occurring inside the future.

preventing an episode
There are 3 fundamental techniques and remedies which could assist prevent episodes as they occur. those are:

Vagal manoeuvres – techniques designed to stimulate the nerve that slows down the electric alerts for your heart. An instance is the 'Valsalva manoeuvre', wherein you maintain your nose, close your mouth and exhale tough while straining as in case you're on the rest room.
remedy – an injection of drugs consisting of adenosine may be given in clinic if vagal manoeuvres do not help. it is able to block the strange electrical indicators on your heart.
Cardioversion – a form of electric powered surprise remedy that jolts the coronary heart lower back into a everyday rhythm. this can be finished in medical institution if the above treatments do not paintings.
preventing in addition episodesCancer of the womb (uterine or endometrial most cancers) is a not unusual cancer that influences the lady reproductive gadget. it is greater not unusual in ladies who have been via the menopause.

signs and symptoms of womb cancer
The most not unusual symptom of womb most cancers is vaginal bleeding that is unusual for you (extraordinary).

in case you've been through the menopause, any vaginal bleeding is taken into consideration extraordinary.

when you have no longer yet been through the menopause, peculiar bleeding may also encompass very heavy periods or bleeding between your durations.

read greater about the signs and symptoms of womb cancer.

whilst to see a GP
See your GP as soon as viable if you experience any unusual vaginal bleeding. while it's not likely to be due to womb cancer, it is best to be sure.

Your GP will ask approximately your signs and provide an inner exam. they may refer you to a expert if vital for further checks to rule out any serious hassle.

study extra approximately diagnosing womb most cancers.

forms of womb most cancers
most womb cancers begin inside the cells that make up the lining of the womb (the endometrium). that is why most cancers of the womb is frequently called endometrial most cancers.

In rare cases, womb most cancers can start within the muscle wall of the womb. This form of most cancers is called uterine sarcoma and can be handled in a extraordinary manner. examine extra approximately gentle tissue sarcomas.

Womb most cancers is become independent from different cancers of the lady reproductive device, inclusive of ovarian cancer and cervical cancer.

Why does womb cancer manifest?
it is no longer clear precisely what causes womb cancer, but certain things can growth your hazard of growing it.

one of the main chance elements for womb most cancers is better levels of a hormone called oestrogen for your body.

a number of of things can purpose your oestrogen tiers to be high, which include weight problems. there may be additionally a small increase in the hazard of womb cancer with lengthy-term use of the breast cancer drug tamoxifen.

it's not continually feasible to save you womb cancer, however a few matters are idea to lessen your risk. This consists of retaining a healthful weight and the lengthy-term use of some varieties of birth control.

examine extra about the causes of womb most cancers.

Treating womb cancer
The maximum commonplace remedy for womb cancer is the surgical removal of the womb (hysterectomy).

A hysterectomy can therapy womb cancer in its early ranges, however you will not be able to get pregnant. surgical treatment for womb most cancers is likewise possibly to encompass the removal of the ovaries and fallopian tubes.

Radiotherapy or chemotherapy are also on occasion given too.

A type of hormone remedy (progestogen) can be used when you have now not yet been thru the menopause and might nevertheless like to have children.

Even in case your cancer is advanced and the probabilities of a remedy are small, treatment can nonetheless help to alleviate signs and extend your existence.

examine greater approximately treating womb most cancers.

residing with womb cancer
residing with most cancers is difficult, and womb most cancers can have an effect on your life in specific ways.

for example, your intercourse lifestyles can be affected if you have a hysterectomy, in particular if your ovaries are removed. you may discover it bodily greater hard to have sex and also have a discounted sex drive.

you may find it beneficial to talk to other human beings about your circumstance, along with family contributors, your associate or other humans with womb cancer.
techniques and treatments that may help prevent episodes include:

life-style modifications – if your episodes are precipitated with the aid of things together with strenuous workout or alcohol, fending off these may additionally help. Your cardiologist can advise you about this.
remedy – every day drugs of medication consisting of amiodarone can help prevent episodes by way of slowing down the electrical impulses on your coronary heart.
Catheter ablation – this process is commonly used in recent times to wreck the more a part of the heart inflicting the troubles in the heart's electrical system.

Whooping cough, also called pertussis, is a highly contagious bacterial infection of the lungs and airways

It reasons repeated coughing bouts which can last for 2 to a few months or extra, and can make babies and younger kids mainly very sick.

Whooping cough is spread in the droplets of the coughs or sneezes of a person with the infection.

signs and symptoms of whooping cough
the first symptoms of whooping cough are similar to those of a chilly, along with a runny nostril, crimson and watery eyes, a sore throat, and a barely raised temperature.

extreme coughing bouts start about a week later.

The bouts normally final a few minutes at a time and have a tendency to be greater not unusual at night.
Coughing normally brings up thick mucus and may be accompanied through vomiting.
between coughs, you or your child may also gasp for breath – this could cause a "whoop" sound, although now not everybody has this.
The stress of coughing can reason the face to become very purple, and there may be a few slight bleeding below the skin or within the eyes.
young youngsters can every now and then in brief flip blue (cyanosis) in the event that they have problem respiratory – this regularly seems worse than it's far and their respiration have to begin again quick.
In very young babies, the cough may not be specially substantial, however there may be brief periods in which they forestall respiratory.
The bouts will finally start to emerge as less excessive and much less common over time, however it is able to be a few months before they forestall completely.

who's liable to whooping cough
Whooping cough can affect people of any age, which include:

infants and younger children – young toddlers below six months of age are at a mainly increased danger of headaches of whooping cough
older kids and adults – it has a tendency to be much less critical in those cases, however can nonetheless be unsightly and frustrating
people who have had whooping cough before – you're no longer resistant to whooping cough in case you've had it before, although it tends to be less severe the second one time round
humans vaccinated in opposition to whooping cough as a child – protection from the whooping cough vaccine has a tendency to wear off after a few years
you may get whooping cough in case you come into near contact with a person with the infection.

a person with whooping cough is infectious from approximately six days after they had been infected – once they simply have cold-like signs – till three weeks after the coughing bouts begin.

Antibiotic remedy can reduce the length of time someone is infectious.

when to get scientific recommendation
See your GP or call NHS 111 in case you or your infant:

have signs and symptoms of whooping cough
have had a cough for greater than 3 weeks
have a cough this is mainly severe or is getting worse
name 999 or visit your nearest coincidence and emergency (A&E) branch if you or your baby:

have great respiration problems, such as lengthy periods of breathlessness or choking, shallow respiratory, durations wherein breathing stops, or dusky, blue skin
develop signs of serious complications of whooping cough, such as fits (seizures) or pneumonia
treatment for whooping cough
remedy for whooping cough depends for your age and how long you have had the contamination.

kids underneath six months who're very sick and those with severe signs will commonly be admitted to health center for treatment.
people recognized in the course of the primary 3 weeks of contamination can be prescribed antibiotics to take at home – those will assist prevent the contamination spreading to others, however may not lessen the symptoms.
humans who've had whooping cough for greater than three weeks won't usually want any particular remedy, as they're now not contagious and antibiotics are not likely to assist.
at the same time as you are getting better at domestic, it may help to get masses of rest, drink masses of fluids, clean away mucus and ill out of your or your child's mouth, and take painkillers along with paracetamol or ibuprofen for a fever.

avoid the use of cough drug treatments, as they're not appropriate for younger children and are not going to be of a great deal help.

stopping the infection spreading
if you or your toddler are taking antibiotics for whooping cough, you need to be cautious not to unfold the contamination to others.

live away from nursery, school or work until 48 hours from the begin of antibiotic remedy or three weeks after the coughing bouts started out (whichever is faster).
cover your or your baby's mouth and nose with a tissue while coughing and sneezing.
eliminate used tissues immediately.
Wash your and your toddler's arms regularly with cleaning soap and water.
different participants of your family will also be given antibiotics and a dose of the whooping cough vaccine to stop them becoming inflamed.

Vaccinations for whooping cough
There are three ordinary vaccinations which can shield toddlers and kids from whooping cough:

the whooping cough vaccine in pregnancy – this may shield your toddler for the duration of the first few weeks of existence; the best time to have it's miles soon after the twentieth week of your being pregnant
the 5-in-1 vaccine – offered to infants at eight, 12 and 16 weeks of age
the 4-in-1 pre-faculty booster – presented to children by using three years and four months
these vaccines do not provide lifelong protection from whooping cough, however they can help prevent kids getting it while they may be young and more vulnerable to the outcomes of the contamination.

Older children and adults are not automatically vaccinated, besides all through being pregnant or a whooping cough outbreak.

headaches of whooping cough
infants and younger youngsters beneath six months are commonly most severely tormented by whooping cough.

they're at an multiplied hazard of:

dehydrationThe elimination of knowledge teeth, or 1/3 molars, is one of the most not unusual surgical tactics achieved inside the uk.

The expertise enamel grow behind your gums and are the ultimate enamel to return thru. most of the people have 4 awareness enamel – one in each nook.

understanding enamel commonly grow through the gums during the late teenagers or early Twenties. by means of this time, the other 28 grownup teeth are normally in place, so there isn't sufficient room in the mouth for the expertise teeth to develop properly.

because of the lack of space, expertise teeth can occasionally emerge at an perspective or get caught and best partly emerge. awareness teeth that grow via like this are called impacted.

while to see a dentist
You have to make an appointment to peer your dentist in case your understanding teeth are causing severe ache. they may test your enamel and suggest you whether or not they need to be removed.

if your dentist thinks you could need to have your know-how enamel eliminated, they may commonly carry out an X-ray of your mouth. This offers them a clearer view of the location of your tooth.

as with every teeth problems, it's crucial to peer your dentist as soon as viable, in preference to awaiting your regular dental take a look at-up.

find your nearby dental surgical operation.

Why are understanding tooth eliminated?
Your know-how enamel do not commonly need to be eliminated if they may be impacted however aren't inflicting any problems. that is due to the fact there's no tested benefit of doing this and it carries the hazard of headaches.

on occasion, information teeth that have end up impacted or haven't fully broken through the floor of the gum can motive dental troubles. meals and bacteria can get trapped around the edge of the expertise tooth, causing a build-up of plaque, which can result in:

enamel decay (dental caries)
gum disease (additionally called gingivitis or periodontal ailment)
pericoronitis – when plaque causes an infection of the tender tissue that surrounds the enamel
cellulitis – a bacterial contamination within the cheek, tongue or throat
abscess – a set of pus in your awareness enamel or the encircling tissue due to a bacterial infection
cysts and benign growths – very rarely, a information enamel that hasn't reduce thru the gum develops a cyst (a fluid-stuffed swelling)
many of these issues may be dealt with with antibiotics and antiseptic mouthwash.

knowledge tooth elimination is generally endorsed when different treatments haven't worked.

Dentists and surgeons follow nationally accredited hints for the elimination of expertise tooth.

How information teeth are eliminated
Your dentist might also dispose of your information teeth, or they'll refer you to a consultant health practitioner for medical institution treatment.

before the operation, the technique will normally be explained to you and you may be requested to signal a consent shape.

you'll normally be given a neighborhood anaesthetic injection to numb the region across the tooth. you will experience some stress simply earlier than the tooth is eliminated, as your dentist or oral physician wishes to widen the teeth socket with the aid of rocking the tooth from side to side.

A small reduce inside the gum is once in a while important, and the teeth may also need to be reduce into smaller portions before it is eliminated.

It takes anything from a few minutes to twenty minutes, or now and again even longer, to remove a expertise teeth.

After your information enamel had been eliminated, you can have swelling and soreness, each outside and inside your mouth. on occasion, some mild bruising is likewise visible. that is usually worse for the primary three days, but it is able to remaining for up to 2 weeks.

examine more approximately how a information enamel is removed and getting better from know-how tooth removal.

feasible headaches
as with all surgical operation, there are risks related to getting rid of a information enamel. these encompass contamination or behind schedule healing, both of which are more likely in case you smoke all through your recovery.

every other feasible problem is "dry socket", which is a dull, aching sensation in your gum or jaw, and every now and then a bad scent or taste coming from the empty teeth socket. Dry socket is more likely in case you do not observe the after-care instructions given with the aid of your dentist.

there's also a small threat of nerve harm, that may motive a tingling or numb sensation on your tongue, decrease lip, chin, tooth and gums. that is generally brief, but in uncommon cases it could be permanent.

respiration difficulties
weight reduction
pneumonia – an infection of the lungs
fits (seizures)
kidney issues
brain damage as a result of a loss of oxygen accomplishing the mind
loss of life – even though that is very rare
Older kids and adults have a tendency to be much less severely affected, even though they may enjoy issues as a result of repeated coughing, consisting of nosebleeds

If you see someone having a seizure or fit

there are a few easy things you can do to assist. You have to call an ambulance if you realize it's their first seizure or it is lasting longer than 5 minutes.

It is probably horrifying to witness, however do not panic.

if you're with someone having a seizure:

best move them if they are in hazard – which includes near a hectic road or hot cooker
cushion their head if they're on the floor
loosen any tight clothing round their neck – inclusive of a collar or tie to – useful resource respiration
when their convulsions forestall, flip them so they are lying on their facet – read more approximately the healing function
live with them and speak to them lightly until they recover
observe the time the seizure begins and finishes
If they may be in a wheelchair, put the brakes on and go away any seatbelt or harness on. aid them gently and cushion their head, however don't try to pass them.

do not positioned something in their mouth, together with your palms. They shouldn't have any food or drink until they completely get better.

when to call an ambulance
Dial 999 and ask for an ambulance if:

it is the first time a person has had a seizure
the seizure lasts for greater than 5 minutes
the character does not regain full consciousness, or has several seizures without regaining cognizance
the individual is significantly injured during the seizure
human beings with epilepsy do not always want to visit clinic each time they've a seizure.

some humans with epilepsy wear a unique bracelet or deliver a card to let scientific professionals and everybody witnessing a seizure understand they have got epilepsy.

The charity Epilepsy action has greater information on seizures that closing longer than five mins.

Make a notice of any beneficial facts
if you see someone having a seizure, you can note things that could be useful for the man or woman or their health practitioner to realize:

What had been they doing before the seizure?
Did the character point out any uncommon sensations, consisting of an peculiar scent or taste?
Did you observe any mood trade, consisting of pleasure, tension or anger?
What introduced your attention to the seizure? was it a noise, which includes the man or woman falling over, or frame moves, such as their eyes rolling or head turning?
Did the seizure occur without caution?
turned into there any loss of cognizance or altered focus?
Did the individual's shade alternate? as an instance, did they grow to be light, flushed or blue? if so, where – the face, lips or fingers?
Did any components in their frame stiffen, jerk or twitch? in that case, which elements had been affected?
Did the person's respiratory trade?
Did they carry out any actions, along with mumble, wander about or fumble with garb?
How long did the seizure ultimate?
Did the individual lose control in their bladder or bowels?
Did they bite their tongue?Whiplash damage is a sort of neck harm as a result of surprising motion of the top forwards, backwards or sideways.

It happens whilst the smooth tissues within the neck turn out to be stretched and damaged (sprained).

Whiplash will often get better within a few weeks or months, but for some people it can last longer and critically limit their sports.

symptoms of whiplash
common signs and symptoms of whiplash include:

neck ache and tenderness
neck stiffness and trouble shifting your head
muscle spasms
ache inside the shoulders and arms
less commonplace signs and symptoms include pins and needles to your arms and palms, dizziness, tiredness, reminiscence loss, negative concentration and irritability.

it is able to take several hours for the signs to develop when you injure your neck. The signs and symptoms are regularly worse the day after the injury, and may retain to worsen for numerous days.

when to get clinical advice
go to your GP in case you've lately been concerned in a road twist of fate, or you've had a surprising effect to your head and you've got pain and stiffness to your neck.

they may ask how the injury happened and approximately your signs and symptoms. they will also have a look at your neck for muscle spasms and tenderness, and might determine the variety of motion for your neck.

Scans and tests which include X-rays will normally most effective be achieved if a broken bone or other problem is suspected.

causes of whiplash
Whiplash can occur if the top is thrown forwards, backwards or sideways violently.

commonplace reasons of whiplash include:

avenue visitors injuries and collisions
a surprising blow to the head – as an instance, during sports activities including boxing or rugby
a slip or fall wherein the head is all of sudden jolted backwards
being struck on the top by means of a heavy or strong item
remedies for whiplash
Whiplash will usually get better on its personal or after a few basic remedy.

treatments for whiplash include:

preserving your neck cell and persevering with together with your regular sports – using a neck brace or collar isn't always advocated
painkillers together with paracetamol or ibuprofen – more potent painkillers are to be had on prescription if these don't help
physiotherapy, physical activities and stretches
in case your ache lasts a long term, you'll be referred for expert treatment and guide at an NHS pain medical institution.

Painkilling injections and surgical operation aren't commonly used for whiplash.

study extra about how whiplash is treated.

Outlook for whiplash
The duration of time it takes to recover from whiplash can vary and is very hard to are expecting.

Many people will experience higher within a few weeks or months, however sometimes it may last up to a yr or extra.

excessive or extended pain can make it difficult to carry out each day sports and revel in your amusement time. it is able to also purpose issues at work and could cause anxiety or depression.

attempt to remain tremendous and recognition in your remedy goals. but in case you do sense depressed, communicate on your GP about suitable remedy and support.
How had been they after the seizure?
Did they need to sleep? in that case, for the way lengthy?

Weight loss surgery

also known as bariatric or metabolic surgical procedure, is sometimes used as a remedy for people who are very overweight.

it is able to lead to sizeable weight loss and assist improve many obesity-related situations, including type 2 diabetes or high blood pressure.

however it is a major operation and in most instances need to best be taken into consideration after looking to shed pounds through a healthy weight-reduction plan and exercise.

NHS weight loss surgery
weight reduction surgical operation is available at the NHS for those who meet sure criteria.

those include:

you have a body mass index (BMI) of 40 or extra, or a BMI between 35 and forty and an obesity-associated circumstance that could improve if you misplaced weight (which include kind 2 diabetes or excessive blood pressure)
you've got tried all other weight loss strategies, inclusive of weight-reduction plan and exercising, however have struggled to shed pounds or keep it off
you agree to long-term observe-up after surgical treatment – consisting of making wholesome way of life changes and attending everyday take a look at-ups
talk on your GP if you suppose weight loss surgery can be an option for you. if you qualify for NHS remedy, they can refer you for an evaluation to test surgical operation is suitable.

you can also can pay for surgical procedure privately, even though this can be pricey.

study extra approximately NHS and private weight loss surgery.

sorts of weight loss surgical procedure
There are several styles of weight reduction surgical procedure.

The most commonplace types are:

gastric band – a band is located across the stomach, so that you don't want to eat as tons to feel complete
gastric pass – the top a part of the stomach is joined to the small intestine, so you sense fuller faster and don't soak up as many calories from meals
sleeve gastrectomy – a number of the stomach is removed, so you cannot devour as a whole lot as you can earlier than and you'll experience full faster
these kinds of operations can result in extensive weight loss within a few years, however every has advantages and downsides.

if you're thinking about weight loss surgical operation, speak to a healthcare professional approximately the different types to be had to help decide that is satisfactory for you.

study more approximately the sorts of weight reduction surgical procedure.

lifestyles after weight loss surgical procedure
weight reduction surgical operation can acquire dramatic weight reduction, but it is not a treatment for obesity on its own.

you'll need to commit to making permanent life-style adjustments after surgery to avoid putting weight back on.

you'll want to:

exchange your diet – you'll be on a liquid or soft meals weight-reduction plan within the weeks after surgical operation, however will steadily flow onto a regular balanced eating regimen that you want to stay on for existence
exercise often – as soon as you've recovered from surgical treatment, you'll be cautioned to begin an exercise plan and preserve it for existence
attend normal follow-up appointments to check how things are going after surgery and get advice or guide if you need it
women who've weight loss surgical operation can even usually want to keep away from becoming pregnant all through the primary 12 to 18 months after surgery.

read greater about life after weight loss surgery.

risks of weight reduction surgical treatment
weight loss surgical treatment incorporates a small threat of headaches.

these consist of:

being left with extra folds of skin – you could want further surgical treatment to take away those
now not getting enough nutrients and minerals out of your food plan – you'll in all likelihood want to take dietary supplements for the relaxation of your lifestyles after surgical treatment
gallstones (small, hard stones that shape within the gallbladder)
a blood clot in the leg (deep vein thrombosis) or lungs (pulmonary embolism)
the gastric band slipping out of place, food leaking from the be a part of between the stomach and small intestine, or the intestine turning into blocked or narrowed
earlier than having surgical treatment, speak to your healthcare professional approximately the possible blessings and risks of the method.
West Nile virus (WNV) is spread with the aid of mosquitoes in many nations. There are commonly no signs and it gets better without remedy.

West Nile virus not often influences uk visitors
very few humans coming returned to the United Kingdom have the virus. nobody has were given the virus while in the uk.

WNV is located in lots of elements of the sector. you could take a look at the place you're travelling to at the travel fitness pro website.

there is no vaccine for WNV. You ought to avoid mosquito bites while journeying excessive-chance regions by means of carrying insect sprays and the use of mosquito nets.

signs of WNV
the majority with WNV haven't any symptoms.

a few humans develop moderate flu-like signs, nausea and pores and skin rash.

The contamination normally goes away on its personal with out remedy.

The virus is not contagious. You only get it from being bitten by using an infected mosquito.

Very young and aged human beings, and those with situations like diabetes are extra at risk of growing intense contamination.

symptoms of a extreme infection can encompass flu-like signs and symptoms and also:

muscle weak spot
suits (seizures)
excessive WNV infections are handled in health center. In rare instances it can lead

Warts and verrucas are small lumps on the skin

that the majority have at some point in their lifestyles. They usually leave on their very own however may also take months or even years.

take a look at if you have a wart or verruca
two warts on an arm
Warts experience firm and difficult. they are able to appear on fingers, knuckles, knees and palms
A verruca on the only of a foot
Verrucas seem for your toes. they have tiny black dots underneath the difficult pores and skin
a collection of flat warts on a forehead
some warts are spherical, flat and may be yellow (plane warts). you can have lots of them
a group of mosaic warts unfold over the skin
Clusters of warts, spread over an area of skin (mosaic warts) are commonplace on ft and fingers
Warts do not reason you any harm but some human beings find them itchy, painful or embarrassing. Verrucas are more likely to be painful – like status on a needle.

you may deal with warts in the event that they hassle you, maintain coming again or are painful.

A pharmacist can assist with warts and verrucas
you can buy lotions, plasters and sprays from pharmacies to get rid of warts and verrucas.

these treatments can soak up to 3 months to complete, may additionally worsen your skin and do not usually paintings. You should not use these treatments on your face.

Your pharmacist can come up with recommendation approximately the great remedy for you.

discover a pharmacy

See a GP if:
you are concerned approximately a growth for your pores and skin
you've got a wart or verruca that continues coming returned
you have a totally huge or painful wart or verruca
a wart bleeds or changes in the way it looks
you have got a wart for your face or genitals
Genital warts may be dealt with at a sexual health or GUM health center.
Watering eyes are not unusual and often get higher on their personal, however remedy may be needed if the watering impacts your each day activities.

reasons of watering eyes
it's regular to your eyes to water in smoky environments or if you're out of doors inside the cold or wind.

an eye fixed injury or something in your eye, which include an eyelash or a bit of grit, can also make your eyes water.

every now and then watering eyes may be caused by a circumstance including:

an hypersensitive reaction or contamination (conjunctivitis)
blocked tear ducts (small tubes that tears drain into)
your eyelid drooping faraway from the eye (ectropion) or your eyelid turning inwards (entropion)
dry eye syndrome – this may reason your eyes to provide too many tears
infants frequently have watering eyes because their tear ducts are small. It normally gets better by the time they are 1 year vintage.

A pharmacist can be capable of assist with watering eyes
A pharmacist can be in a position to inform you:

what you may do to deal with it your self – which includes cleaning and defensive your eyes
if you can purchase something to help – which include cleaning answers, eye drops or allergy medicines
if you want to see an optician or GP
discover a pharmacy

See a GP if:
your eyes keep watering and it's preventing you doing normal activities
you enjoy any adjustments to your imaginative and prescient, including loss of vision
your eyelid is turning inwards or drooping faraway from your eye
you have got any lumps or swellings around your eyes
your eyes are very sore or painful
your infant's eyes are sore, crimson or very watery
in case your GP can not find what is inflicting your eyes to water, they may refer you to a watch professional (ophthalmologist) for exams.

treatment for watering eyes
treatment won't be wished if the watering isn't inflicting troubles.

If remedy is wanted, it's going to rely on what the cause is. as an instance:

eye drops can assist if your eyes are dry or inflamed
medicines can assist if you have an allergy
anything to your eye (inclusive of a piece of grit) may be removed
a small operation can be wanted when you have a hassle along with your eyelids or you've got blocked tear ducts

locate your nearest sexual fitness provider

remedy from a GP
Your GP may be able to freeze a wart or verruca so it falls off a few weeks later. once in a while it takes some classes.

check with your GP if the NHS will pay for this treatment in your place.

If treatment hasn't labored or you have a wart for your face, your GP would possibly refer you to a skin expert. different treatments consist of minor surgical procedure and remedy with laser or light.

the way to stop warts and verrucas spreading
Warts and verrucas are caused by a pandemic. They can be unfold to other humans from infected surfaces or thru near pores and skin contact. you are more likely to spread a wart or verruca if your pores and skin is wet or broken.

it may take months for a wart or verruca to seem after touch with the virus